Referencing Guide

REFERENCING YOUR RADICAL NEWCASTLE CHAPTER

Radical Newcastle has elected to use a referencing system that provides both endnotes and a bibliography by the author at the end of each chapter. As the Chicago Manual of Style (16th ed.) states, the combination of notes and a bibliography is the preferred method of citation in the humanities. The use of endnotes allows authors to provide information about sources without disrupting the flow of text because they appear at the end of the chapter. They can also provide additional information about the issue at hand without disrupting the central argument. The bibliography, which appears as the last component of the chapter, should include all of the sources that are cited in the endnotes and any other works that shaped your approach or general ideas about the topic. If you require further guidance please see the Chicago Manual of Style 16th edition.

ENDNOTES

Please use endnotes to acknowledge both paraphrased ideas and direct quotations from other sources. Endnotes are used to acknowledge key ideas from your sources that are not common knowledge. For example, “The Bastille was stormed on 14 July 1789” is common knowledge and does not need to be referenced. On the other hand, “Some historians argue that the storming of the Bastille had little impact on the overall outcome of the revolution” refers to scholarly opinion and should be supported with relevant references.  If you are not sure whether something is common knowledge or not, provide an endnote.

If you need to refer to more than one source in a single endnote, separate the two notes with a semi colon.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Place the bibliography on a separate sheet of paper at the end of the essay with the word “Bibliography” written at the top.  The list of sources should be reverse indented (also called hanging indent) so the authors’ surnames can easily be read down the left side.

Divide the bibliography into two sections entitled Primary Sources and Secondary Sources. A primary source is a document or other artifact that was created at or near the same time as the historical events described in your essay. Secondary sources are those that were written and published by historians and other scholars drawing upon both primary and other secondary sources.

EXAMPLES OF ENDNOTE AND BIBLIOGRAPHY ENTRIES

General Advice:

Give each author’s name as it appears on the title page and the full title of the work, plus any subtitle, in the first endnote reference and in the bibliography entry.  For full length published works (monographs and collections) and for journals, the title should be in italics.  For chapters and articles and for unpublished works such as theses, the title should be enclosed in double quotation marks.

Provide the city (not the suburb or country) of publication.  If several cities are listed, use the first.

If there is more than one year of publication listed, it is important to use the latest one.  If the edition is provided, indicate whether it is the second, third, etc.

While most published sources will contain all of the required information to construct your endnotes and bibliography, some will not.  If there is no author, replace that field with “n.a.”; if no place of publication, use “n.p.”; and if there is no date of publication, write “n.d.”.  These abbreviations show the reader that you knew this information should be provided, but it was not available.  They are not required for unpublished primary sources.

We expect that a wide range of unpublished sources will be drawn upon in this project, many of which will not list all of the information needed for referencing.  To the extent that you can, you should follow the general endnote pattern of providing the author, title, city, year and page number.  If the source is part of a collection in a library or archives, provide its name and any relevant file number, then the name and place of the institution in which it is held.  The important thing is that readers should be able to locate the source if they so choose.

Books – Single Author
E 1. Philip Dwyer, Napoleon: The Path to Power, 1769–1799 (London: Bloomsbury, 2007), 12.
B  Dwyer, Philip. Napoleon: The Path to Power, 1769–1799. London: Bloomsbury, 2007.

Later edition of a book
E  1. Stuart Macintyre, A Concise History of Australia, 2nd ed.  (Melbourne: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 34.
B  Macintyre, Stuart. A Concise History of Australia.  2nd edition.  Melbourne: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Books – More than One Author, Translator or Editor
E  1. Stuart Ward and Deryck Schreuder, ed., Australia’s Empire (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007), iv.
B  Ward, Stuart, and Deryck Schreuder, ed. Australia’s Empire. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007.

Chapter in an edited collection
E  1. Victoria Haskins and Margaret D. Jacobs, “Stolen Generations and Vanishing Indians: The Removal of Indigenous Children as a Weapon of War in the United States and Australia, 1870–1940,” in Children and War: A Historical Anthology, ed. James Marten (New York:  New York University Press, 2002), 227–29.
B  Haskins, Victoria and Margaret D. Jacobs. “Stolen Generations and Vanishing Indians: The Removal of Indigenous Children as a Weapon of War in the United States and Australia, 1870–1940.” In Children and War: A Historical Anthology, edited by James Marten, 227–41. New York: New York University Press, 2002.

Journal Article
E  1. David A. Roberts, “A ‘Change of Place’: Illegal Movement on the Bathurst Frontier, 1822–1825,” Journal of Australian Colonial History 7 (2005): 97.
B  Roberts, David A. “A ‘Change of Place’: Illegal Movement on the Bathurst Frontier, 1822–1825.” Journal of Australian Colonial History 7 (2005): 97–122.

Magazine or Newspaper Article [Published monthly or daily]
E 1. Patrick Carey, “Home at Last,” Irish Daily Independent (Dublin), June 16, 1904.
B  Carey, Patrick. “Home at Last.” Irish Daily Independent (Dublin), June 16, 1904.

Thesis or Dissertation
E  1. Anne Williams, “Managing the ‘Feebleminded’: Eugenics and the Institutionalisation of People with Intellectual Disability in New South Wales, 1900–30” (Ph.D. diss., University of Newcastle, NSW, 1998), 43.
B  Williams, Anne. “Managing the ‘Feebleminded’: Eugenics and the Institutionalisation of People with Intellectual Disability in New South Wales, 1900–30.”  Ph.D. diss., University of Newcastle, NSW, 1998.

·       Note: no italics required for citations of a thesis or dissertation.

Public Documents and Archival Sources

E  1. Charlie Fraser.  Letters to Lizzie.  A6154 (vii).  University of Newcastle Archives.

B  Fraser, Charlie.  Letters to Lizzie.  A6154 (vii).  University of Newcastle Archives.

Primary source accessed in a published collection

E  1. “Orders issued at Newcastle, 1817–19, Government Order.  Newcastle, 11 January 1817,” in Newcastle as a Convict Settlement: The Evidence Before J.T. Bigge in 1819–1821, ed. John Turner (Newcastle: Council of the City of Newcastle, 1973), 190.

B  “Orders issued at Newcastle, 1817–19, Government Order.  Newcastle, 11 January 1817.” In Newcastle as a Convict Settlement: The Evidence Before J.T. Bigge in 1819–1821, edited by John Turner, 190–200. Newcastle: Council of the City of Newcastle, 1973.

Electronic Sources
Primary source accessed on line:

To cite sources available via the World Wide Web, give the author’s name (if known), the full title of the work and any reference number, the nature of the digital source, the full web address, and the date of your visit (since web sites change rapidly).  If there is no author identified, try to identify the sponsoring author/organization of the website.

E  1. Lord Hopetoun to Edmund Barton, 11 Feb. 1901. Papers of Sir Edmund Barton. MS51, National Library of Australia. Digitised Manuscript from National Library of Australia, http://nla.gov.au/nla.ms-ms51-1-757-s1 (accessed 17 March 2009).
B  Papers of Sir Edmund Barton. MS51. National Library of Australia. Digitised Manuscript from National Library of Australia.
http://nla.gov.au/nla.ms-ms51-1-757-s1 (accessed 17 March 2009).

Secondary source accessed on line.

E 1. Claire Lowrie, “Sold and Stolen: Domestic ‘slaves’ and the rhetoric of ‘protection’ in Darwin and Singapore during the 1920s and 1930s,” paper presented to the 16th Biennial Conference of the Asian Studies Association of Australia, Wollongong, 26 June–29 June 2006, Conference proceedings website, http://coombs.anu.edu.au/SpecialProj/ASAA/biennial-conference/2006/Lowrie-Claire-ASAA2006.pdf (accessed 26 May 2010).
B  Lowrie, Claire. “Sold and Stolen: Domestic ‘slaves’ and the rhetoric of ‘protection’ in Darwin and Singapore during the 1920s and 1930s.” Paper presented to the 16th Biennial Conference of the Asian Studies Association of Australia, Wollongong, 26 June–29 June 2006. Conference proceedings website.
http://coombs.anu.edu.au/SpecialProj/ASAA/biennial-conference/2006/Lowrie-Claire-ASAA2006.pdf (accessed 26 May 2010).

Film

E  1. Viking Saga, DVD, directed by Mikeal Agaton (Hindmarsh, S.A.: DECS-Tape Services, 2010).

Viking Saga. DVD. Directed by Mikeal Agaton. Hindmarsh, S.A.: DECS-Tape Services, 2010.

Subsequent endnote references

If there are subsequent references to works that have already been cited refer to the work by surname, short title and page number.  If there are two or three authors, give each of their surnames in the subsequent references.  For a reference to an edited volume or journal article, provide the surname of the author not the editor and short title of the chapter or article, not the book or journal.  Do not use Ibid. or any other Latin abbreviation for immediately following references, just repeat the short form.

2.    Dwyer, Napoleon, 35.
3.    Haskins, “Stolen Generations,” 227.
4.    Hopetoun to Barton, 11 Feb. 1901.
5.    Hopetoun to Barton, 11 Feb. 1901.

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Comments
  1. Marilla North says:

    Excellent and thank you. UQ uses new MLA and I have just finished a huge piece on Vera Deacon for Professor Carole Ferrier using that style. No wonder I am confused and slightly, even wildly, scholarly bipolar. Best Marilla

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